In the offshore sector, in order to use the substances present in petroleum, it is necessary to make the separation of each of the components, so some important measures are needed for refining the product. When extracted from the bottom of the sea, the oil carries with it several impurities that are separated by means of decanting and for the larger aspects such as sand, clay or pieces of rocks, there is the use of filtration. After this step, the fractional distillation is performed using the distillation tower in which the oil is placed in an oven so that it is heated and thus its components pass into the gaseous state, and there remain liquids.
Then there is the vacuum distillation where the heavier elements come into boiling at lower temperatures than their starting point, preventing the molecules from longer chains, breaking down. Thus, continuing the refining, the thermal or catalytic cracking of petroleum is applied, and there is the process of breaking the longest molecules into smaller molecules, transforming into one of the most important stages of oil.
Cracking is done to increase the chances of harnessing oil and obtaining by-products that are used as raw materials in the production of plastics and rubbers. Finally, the last stage refers to the catalytic reform that has as its function the restructuring of the molecules, the chains of hydrocarbons in branched chains, characterizing cyclical and aromatic.
All these processes are specific to the care in oil refining, so that the offshore sector can increasingly develop its fundamental techniques for all countries and large companies in the extractions and refining of these commodities.
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