Refineries have a key role in the oil sector. They are industries or factories that transform crude oil, extracted at the bottom of the sea or land wells, in various products used daily, and in fuels like diesel oil, gasoline and even LPG, famous cooking gas.
Currently, in Brazil there are 15 refineries scattered throughout the country in which Petrobras is the company that owns refining institutions, covering the territories of Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco, Bahia, Ceará, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, Amazonas and Paraná.
The Replan (Paulínia refinery), located in São Paulo, is the largest oil processing capacity with about 69000 m³/day, equivalent to 434,000 barrels. Its productivity corresponds to approximately 20% of all oil refining in the country, almost the entire national product, coming from the Santos basin.
In the refineries are carried out the processes of atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, hydrotreatment, cracking and alkylation, all necessary in the stages of oil refining. Although they are important for the country, the refineries end up causing some damage to the environment, such as the emission of pollutant gases in the atmosphere, high organic loads in waters and contaminated soils.
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